Al-wataniyun al-maghariba fi al-qarn al-'ishrin الوطنيون المغاربة في القرن العشرين
A comprehensive history of the Moroccan nationalist movement and its social underpinnings from the late 19th century to 1999. Throughout this work the author is concerned with the conceptual binary of modernity/conservatism in Moroccan society from a historical perspective. The question he raises, again and again, is the following: why Moroccan intellectuals failed over nearly two centuries to free themselves from the chains of conservatism? 2 volumes.